Exploratory Data Analysis(beginner) , Univariate, Bivariate and Multivariate — Habberman dataset.

purnasai gudikandula
9 min readNov 9, 2018

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This blog is written imaging a newbie to Data science (with some knowledge on python and its packages like NumPy, pandas, matplotlib, seaborn) in mind. so I will take you to a clear explanation of everything that I can. after reading this blog you will get an idea of Exploratory Data Analysis(EDA) using Univariate visualisations, bivariate visualisation, and multivariate visualisation and some plots. Don't worry if these terms sound alien to you. will tell you clearly what every term is used for.

Data science life cycle:

Every Data science Beginner, working professional, student or practitioner follows a few steps while doing. I will tell you about all these steps in simple terms for your understanding.

1.Hypothesis definition:- A proposed explanation as a starting point for further investigation.

Ex:- A(company) wants to release a Raincoat(product) in Summer. now the company is in a dilemma whether to release the product or not. (i know its a bad idea, but for understanding, let's think this.)

2. Data Acquisition:- collecting the required data.

Ex:- collecting the last 10 years of data in a certain region.

3.Exploratory Data Analysis(EDA):- Analysing collected data using some concepts(will see them below).

Ex: on collected data(existing data)data scientists will perform some analysis and decide, what are features/metrics to consider for model building.

4.Model building:- this is where Machine learning comes into light.

Ex:- by using metrics(outputs of EDA), they will predict(using ML )whether the product will be successful or not if it goes into the market.

5.Result report:- after doing EDA and Model building, it generates results.

Ex: as a result of all the above steps we get some results, which decides whether to start production or not.

6.final Product:- based on the result, we will get a product.

Ex:- if the result generated is positive, A(company) can start production. if the result is negative, A won't start production.

Data science life cycle

Exploratory Data Analysis:-

By definition, exploratory data analysis is an approach to analysing data to summarise their main characteristics, often with visual methods.

in other words, we perform analysis on data that we collected, to find important metrics/features by using some nice and pretty visualisations.

every person takes some decisions in their life considering a few points in some situations. to be accurate at these decisions data scientist does some EDA on data.

For Ex: if you want to join a graduate school, what do you do?

you collect some opinions(data) from alumni, students, friends, family. now from those opinions, you will find some key points(metrics/features), let's say the points like placement rate, reputation, faculty to student ratio, labs and infrastructure. if you are happy with these points, only then you will join them.

this is what exactly happens with EDA from a data scientist point of view. if you want to more about Exploratory data analysis please check here.

Some theory:

Exploratory Data Analysis is majorly performed using the following methods:

  • Univariate analysis:- provides summary statistics for each field in the raw data set (or) summary only on one variable. Ex:- CDF,PDF,Box plot, Violin plot.(don't worry, will see below what each of them is)
  • Bivariate analysis:- is performed to find the relationship between each variable in the dataset and the target variable of interest (or) using 2 variables and finding the relationship between them.Ex:-Box plot, Violin plot.
  • Multivariate analysis:- is performed to understand interactions between different fields in the dataset (or) finding interactions between variables more than 2. Ex:- Pair plot and 3D scatter plot.

more than saying all these concepts theoretically, let's see them by doing some exercise. let's download a data set from Kaggle(home for Data scientists), you can download and know more about it here →Habberman dataset.

I am using ubuntu 18.04

my ubuntu version

and python 3.6(know your version by typing python in command prompt)

checking python version

with anaconda 5.2.0(know your version by typing conda list anaconda).

checking anaconda version

before you get your hands on please make sure that you installed some libraries like NumPy, pandas, matplotlib, seaborn.

let's start. open your command prompt and type “jupyter notebook”, this will take you to jupyter environment where you can visualise graphs.

opening jupyter notebook

lets start. if you are done with all the above process, then run your notebooks parallel to mine.

1.importing libraries:

%matplotlib inline in above code snippet allows us to view our graphs in jupyter notebook itself.

Load dataset: import the dataset to a variable of your own convention. i am going with Cancer_sur by using pandas function pd.read_csv().

loaind data set to a varaible

you can see the top 5 lines of data by using Cancer_sur.head().

checking top5 rows of data

if you look at it, you can see top 5 rows, but not able to make sense, because there are no column labels to it. let's add columns to it.

adding column labels and loading dataset again to Cancer_sur variable.

in the above snippet, header = None removes its headers, names =[] adds column names to the dataset as “Age”, “Operation_year, “axil_nodes_det”, “Surv_status”.

2.Some Basic analysis:

lets see top 5 rows after updating labels using Cancer_sur.head().

image after labelling

lets see last 5 rows using Cancer_sur.tail().

last 5 rows

3.High level statistics:

u can see count(gives total rows),Mean(average),std(standard deviation from one point to another),min,max and total coulmns of dataset and its rows, its data types by using .describe() and .info().

observations:

observations.

.shape gives no of rows and columns.

total rows and columns of dataset

Surv_status is a target column where it gives 2 values 1(means survived) and 2(not survived). let's see them. in the entire dataset, we have 225 rows(people) with value 1(survived) and 81rows(people) with value 2(not survived).

now let's see some univariate analysis.

Univariate analysis(PDF, CDF, Boxplot, Violin plots,Distribution plots):-

Analysis done based only on one variable. we are not going to the math behind these concepts, for now, let's see what these are in graphs. (please have some basic idea on these concepts if you don't get them by seeing graphs).

Distribution plot:

people follow their own ways of coding that gives similar results. The distribution plot gives the density of distributions from point to point in general terms.

we draw this using seaborn as sns, Facetgrid gives grid layout, Cancer_sur is a variable that we loaded data into. Hue colours the value/column name that you give to it. Size is graph size and mapping all these to sns.distplot on “Age” column.

from the above graph, you can observe that people age 50 to 60 have more survival rate.

now let's draw the same with another column “Operation_year”

from the above graph, we can say that people who had an operation in the year from 58 to 66 had more survival rate.

CDF(cumulative distributive function), PDF(probability density function):

we draw this using univariable “age” and drawn cumulative distribution function and probability density function.

if we draw a straight line from Age value at 70, then it intersects the curve Cumulative distribution function(yellow) at a value approximately equal to 0.8 i.e there are 80% people from a cumulative sum of 30 to 70 age.

Bivariate analysis:

this gives the relationship between the two variables, hence its called bivariate analysis.

Box plot:

Box plot is a nice way of viewing some statical values along with relationship between two values.

note: from the next coming to all graphs, graphs that are in blue shows value1(survived) and yellow with value2(not survived).

it uses seaborn as sns to visualise boxplot between X =’ Surv_status’, y= “‘Age”, data= Cancer_surv, because it is where all our dataset loaded to

Now, let's draw the Box plot between Surv_Status and Operation year.

it is observed that people that had the operation in the year 1958 to 1966 survived.

Violin plot:

violin plots also like box plots, but these give pdf along with box plots in it. they look a violin, so named to .please see this image.

this is the same as the above box plot, but here we used the violin plot to look more pretty and to get the pdf at the same time.

you can observe that people with operation year from 58 to 66 survived more as after that the graphs decreased as you can see in the above figure.

Multivariate Analysis:

Pair plot:

pair plot shows a clear and nice view of all variables and their relation ship with all other variables.

it uses seaborn as sns to draw a pair plot with dataset variable Cancer_sur and colours the graph using Surv_status with size = 3

Observations:

finally, observations are more important for every graph. as we seen above i made some conclusion to every graph.

4.Model building:

this is where ml comes into the picture. as of now, we did with EDA.

Excercise:

now after reading this blog please try to do some exploratory data analysis on your own dataset. for beginners, I suggest the titanic dataset from Kaggle and the iris dataset from Kaggle.

for more please check out some great kaggle kernels to explore EDA more and also check out this kernel too.

please feel free to connect me on LinkedIn here below:

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Also, Look at this Informative Blog on the same EDA to learn more. link here from Neptune.ai

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